Nursey, who has been executive director at BBC Media Action since 2009, has succeeded Tim Wainwright, executive director of WaterAid, who has served as Bond’s chair since April 2015.
Nursey will serve an initial one-year term in her new role, Bond said in a statement.
Before her role at BBC Media Action, an international development charity that focuses on using the media to reduce poverty, Nursey spent seven years in director-level roles at Oxfam.
She was also one of Bond’s founders and has been involved in the organisation for more than 20 years.
Nursey said: "I have been involved with Bond since its formation and have been proud to watch the organisation go from strength to strength.
"Bond plays a critical role in supporting and strengthening the development and humanitarian sector so that we all work effectively to help those facing insecurity and living in poverty. As the recent flooding in south Asia and Hurricane Irma sadly remind us, the invaluable work our sector does is needed now more than ever."
Tamsyn Barton, chief executive of Bond, said: "We are delighted to welcome Caroline as chair of Bond. Caroline was one of the founders of Bond and has been pivotal in supporting the organisation’s growth in strength over the past 20 years.
"Caroline brings a wealth of experience, enthusiasm and commitment to the development sector. We are very much looking forward to welcoming Caroline and continuing the fantastic work Bond does to champion and challenge the development sector."
Barton also paid tribute to Wainwright, who she said "achieved an enormous amount over a short period of time" and thanked him for his "continued dedication to Bond".