Campbell Robb is to succeed Jacob Tas as chief executive of the social justice charity Nacro.
Robb will leave his current position as chief executive of the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and Joseph Rowntree Housing Trust to join the social justice charity in July.
Tas is returning to his native Netherlands to become chief executive of the Royal Netherlands Sea Rescue Institution.
Robb is one of the voluntary sector's highest-profile leaders.
In 2006 he left the National Council for Voluntary Organisations, where he was director of public policy, to become the first director general of the Office of the Third Sector, the forerunner to the current Office for Civil Society.
At the OTS he worked alongside Ed Miliband, the first dedicated third sector minister.
Robb was then chief executive of the housing charity Shelter from 2010 to 2017 before taking up his current position.
Robb said in a statement it had been "an absolute privilege" to lead the York-based JRF and JRHT, which is to begin searching for a new chief executive, but he was "delighted" to be joining Nacro, which is based in London.
"It is now time for me to accept a new challenge, to be closer to home and for new leadership to guide JRF and JRHT through the next stage of its crucial mission to achieve a prosperous UK without poverty," he said.
"Nacro’s work providing education and skills, relieving homelessness and supporting people with substance misuse problems and those coming out of prison is needed more than ever."
Will Haire, chair of the JRF and the JRHT, said in a statement that Robb had "led a comprehensive change programme across the organisation".
Nigel Chapman, chair of Nacro, said Robb's "ability to influence policy at all levels will improve the quality of services for the people we support" and he would build on the "strong legacy" left by Tas.
A Nacro spokeswoman said Tas, who became chief executive in 2014, had announced internally that he would leave in November, but his departure had not been more widely announced until now.
She was unable to confirm how much Robb will be paid.
According to the JRF's latest annual accounts, for the year ending 31 December 2017, Robb's salary was £151,000.
According to Nacro’s accounts for the year to the end of March 2018, its highest-paid director, who is not identified, received a salary of £140,000.