Faced with the prospect of funding cuts and increased competition, charities often opt to focus on their short-term survival at the expense of meaningful risk management.
Once the legal requirements have been met, many organisations tend to forget about the process until the next annual audit or unforeseen issue arises.
Having a meaningful risk register will encourage you to dust off those well-intended plans and build them into your operations.
Risk registers make it easier for organisations to rank key risks and mitigate any that stand in the way of their objectives.
"It is vital that charities evaluate potential risk, make relevant people aware of the identified risks and the control measures that have been implemented," says Wendy Cotton, Markel’s Technical Line Manager – Social Welfare. "This ensures everyone is as safe as possible whilst delivering crucial services in the community."
So, how do you go about creating one that is meaningful and remains top of your stakeholders’ to-do lists?
The first step
Define your risk policy.
This involves deciding how much risk you are comfortable with shouldering for each of your charity’s objectives, and being clear about the risks you would not accept in any circumstances.
Charities with larger reserves are likely to have a greater tolerance for risk than those that are struggling with their finances.
This risk policy will help determine how suitable certain activities are for your organisation. For example, a charity working in a warzone will need to be in a strong enough financial position to shoulder the relatively high risks associated with these operations.
The next stage
Identify the main risks.
Considering the risks associated with each of the following organisational objectives is a good way of moving these early discussions beyond the basic list-based approach:
- Having the right impact and the intended outcomes for your beneficiaries
- Managing finances to secure the financial sustainability of the organisation
- Compliance with law and regulation
- Protecting your reputation
- Objectives that relate to the unique purpose of the charity.
Involving stakeholders across each of the key agendas in your charity should ensure that important risks do not get missed or marginalised.
Once the main risks have been agreed, it is recommended that potential outcomes are ranked in terms of their impact and likelihood of occurring.
Take it a step further
It can be useful to organise these events into a heat map where outcomes are colour graded according to their level of seriousness. These easy-to-read illustrations would highlight a catastrophic event with a high probability of occurring in red, while an insignificant risk with a remote chance of taking place would be green.
Now it’s time to decide how you would respond to each of the potential occurrences. The options include:
- Stopping an activity to avoid the related risk
- Transferring the risk to a third party such as a trading subsidiary
- Sharing the risk with others, for example a joint venture
- Limiting the charity’s exposure to risk through various hedging strategies
- Tightening controls across key operations such as finance and human resources
- Insuring against tangible risks including third party liability, fire, theft, and employers liability
- Deciding that the likelihood or impact of a risk is low enough for no action to be taken
Following these steps should give you the basics of a risk register – the possible downsides your organisation faces which are ranked by impact and likelihood, and the actions to take if these events occur. But don’t stop there. Reaping the benefit of your new strategy requires regular reviews and clearly defined boundaries of responsibility.
It is vital that everyone involved with the risk management process knows what they should be monitoring, their response remit and who to contact if an issue becomes more serious. This can be communicated to stakeholders through a pre-defined hierarchy of responsibility with guidelines on the ownership of a particular risk at each level.
"External support can often be accessed free of charge to assist charities in this process, so they should seek out the opportunity to do this when possible," says Cotton.
The risk register should also be updated to take new risks into account and reflect changes linked to previously identified risks.
Instilling these processes will give your charity the flexibility to thrive in even the most uncertain times.
And with few charities currently having a risk register you will be better placed to show funders that you’re in it for the long term.