Sir Antonio Pappano, music director at the Royal Opera House, was paid £737,424 by the charity in 2014/15, an increase of almost £200,000 on the previous year.
The charity’s latest set of accounts, for the year to the end of August 2015, show Pappano received a basic salary of £104,186 plus fees of £633,238.
The accounts says that payments made to Pappano and Kasper Holten, the charity’s director of opera, comprise a salary and separately contracted fees for conducting and directing respectively.
A spokesman for the charity said Pappano’s pay increased over the course of the year because he had conducted more performances than in the previous 12 months.
The charity’s next highest earners are Alex Beard, its chief executive, who was paid £266,875, and Holten, who received a basic salary of £235,183 plus £14,900 in fees.
The number of people employed by the charity in 2014/15 rose by 33 on the previous year to 1,057, 115 of which earned £60,000 or more. Nineteen employers were paid £100,000 or more over the course of the year.
The charity’s income rose by about £14m over the course of the year to £141.6m, the accounts show, while spending was up slightly to £124.5m.
In his welcome to the annual report, Simon Robey, chair of the charity, said the ROH had had a "successful artistic and financial 12 months", despite operating in a tough environment.
"Through detailed planning, rigorous examination of spending and procurement and an ambitious approach to developing other income streams, we have managed to steer a prudent course ahead despite significant reductions in public spending in recent years," he wrote.