The campaign will fund long-term projects such as the expansion of scientific fellowships, research into climate change and a scientific exhibition in 2010 to highlight the role of science in modern life.
"Science will play a central role in our response, and the astonishing advances that will come in the next decades must be used for the benefit of society worldwide," said Martin Rees, the president of the Royal Society.
The Sickle Cell Society is to benefit this year from Jeans for Genes, a one-day fundraising event in which adults can pay £2 and children £1 to wear jeans to work or school. Cash raised on 5 October will contribute to the society's new regional care volunteers project, which provides direct support to people affected by sickle cell disorder. Jeans for Genes raises £3m each year.
Macmillan Cancer Support is set to benefit from a series of Somerfield Big Picnics being held throughout July. The public is being encouraged to organise picnics or attend the National Gardens Scheme picnics. Somerfield will make donations from sales at its supermarkets during July.
Saga, the services provider for people aged over 50, raised £130,000 for the Dandelion Trust for Children and the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art at its Midsummer Night's Dream Charity Ball, which was held in June.